Understanding Ad Fraud in the OTT Landscape: A Comprehensive Guide

The media landscape has undergone a significant transformation in recent years, with Over-the-Top (OTT) platforms emerging as a dominant force. As viewers increasingly shift from traditional broadcasting to OTT services, advertisers are keen to tap into this burgeoning market. However, with new opportunities come new challenges. One of the most pressing issues in the OTT space is ad fraud, a sophisticated and evolving threat that can have severe financial implications for businesses. This guide aims to shed light on the intricacies of ad fraud in the OTT landscape, arming the general public and companies with the knowledge they need to navigate this complex terrain.

The OTT Boom

OTT, or Over-the-Top, refers to content providers distributing streaming media directly to viewers over the internet, bypassing traditional cable or satellite TV platforms. The appeal of OTT lies in its flexibility, allowing consumers to watch content on-demand, anytime, anywhere. According to Statista, the OTT market is expected to reach $126.5 billion in 2023 with an expected annual growth rate of 8.51% from 2023 to 2027. This is projected to grow the market to a value of $175.4 billion.

The advertising potential of OTT is immense. As of 2022, ad spending in the Connected TV space exceeded $19 billion, indicating the industry's confidence in this medium. Connected TV (CTV) refers to devices that are connected to the Internet and allow viewers to stream videos and music, and browse the web. In 2023, CTV is expected to reach just over $25 billion - with 2027 expected to reach a respectable $40.9 billion. Although this rapid growth of OTT platforms is fantastic, it has also made it an attractive target for fraudsters. 

The Dark Side - Ad Fraud in OTT

Ad fraud, in its simplest definition, refers to any deliberate activity that prevents ads from being served to genuine human users. The lack of standardization and transparency in the OTT space, combined with its high CPM (Cost Per Thousand Impressions), has created a fertile ground for various ad fraud techniques.

While digital ad fraud has been a persistent issue across various online platforms, its implications in the OTT space are particularly concerning. Estimates suggest that digital ad fraud cost the global industry between $60B to $120B in 2022. Such staggering figures underscore the urgency of addressing this challenge.

Fraudsters employ several techniques to exploit the vulnerabilities of OTT platforms:

  • Botnets: These are networks of compromised devices used to generate fake views or clicks. In the OTT space, botnets can simulate genuine user behavior, making them hard to detect.
  • Malicious Apps: Some OTT apps are designed with the sole purpose of committing ad fraud. They might play ads continuously in the background, generating fake impressions without any real viewer engagement.
  • Domain Spoofing: This involves fraudsters misrepresenting the domain where the ad is being served, tricking advertisers into thinking their ads are appearing on legitimate OTT platforms.

The implications of ad fraud extend beyond financial losses. For advertisers, it means their messages aren't reaching their intended audience, leading to skewed analytics and ineffective campaigns. For genuine OTT platforms, it erodes trust and can deter advertisers from investing in their platform.  

The Way Forward

As OTT platforms continue to gain prominence, the industry must be prepared to address the evolving threats of ad fraud proactively:

  • Standardization and Transparency: One of the primary challenges in the OTT space is the lack of standardization. Industry-wide standards can provide a unified approach to tackling ad fraud. Collaborative efforts, such as those proposed by the IAB Tech Lab, are steps in the right direction, aiming to bring consistency and alignment across the board.
  • Advanced Technology Integration: Integrating AI and machine learning in fraud detection can offer more sophisticated and real-time solutions. These technologies can quickly analyze vast amounts of data, identifying patterns and anomalies that might indicate fraudulent activity.
  • Collaboration is Key: Ad fraud is not an isolated issue but a collective challenge. Publishers, advertisers, tech providers, and even consumers need to work together. Sharing knowledge, best practices, and data can lead to more effective strategies and solutions.
  • Continuous Education: The realm of ad fraud is ever-evolving. Continuous education and staying updated on the latest techniques, threats, and countermeasures are crucial. Workshops, webinars, and industry conferences can be valuable resources.
  • Ethical Advertising: Advertisers and platforms must prioritize ethical advertising practices. Ensuring ads are not only free from fraud but also respectful of user privacy and preferences will build trust and credibility in the long run.

El Toro’s proprietary technology allows us to combat this vulnerability by pinpointing who we are targeting using IPs and targeting households at a 1:1 level. This cuts out any fraudulent inventory and puts advertising in front of real people.


The rise of OTT platforms has transformed media consumption by offering unprecedented flexibility and convenience, yet it presents challenges, particularly in combating ad fraud. At El Toro, we are committed to tackling this issue by exclusively using Private Marketplace (PMP) inventory to ensure the highest quality and validity of advertising traffic compared to inventory from the Open Marketplace, which has fewer guidelines. What sets us apart is our patented IP-level targeting technology, which allows us to reach real people on real devices, avoiding bots or fake applications. Furthermore, the majority of our publishers employ Server-Side Ad Insertions, enhancing ad performance, providing reliable viewability reporting, and consistently mitigating fake impressions. By combining advanced technologies and industry-wide collaboration, we can secure a profitable and trustworthy future for the OTT landscape.

Want to know more? Let’s talk.


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